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第十五讲 永利澳门游戏网站轻便句、并列句和复

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第十七讲 轻巧句、并列句和复合句

  • 二〇一四年考研国家线已公布
  • 34校2014考研复试线已发表
  • 二〇一五全国内地球科高校调理音信平台
  • 2014高档高校考研调剂消息公布办法
  • 二〇一六年考研究生入学考试生发布调养意向区

豆蔻年华。考试大纲须要

  语法知识点1

试验大纲供给考生能正确决断句子的等级次序、深入分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选用适宜的连续几日词语、决断主语和从句的不易语序、伏贴接受主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。教导的相比较级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+ as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你相符学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难点句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等学园统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的考察主要不外乎:句子的结构、连词的抉择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习贯用语和特有的句式应用。

  2.only指导的倒装句型:only +状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  只有努力、正直,壹人在生活中才具成功。 

1.简易句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  独有那位女子知道怎么解那道题。

① 句子体系三种分类法

  3.wish指导的虚构语气:wish 前边的从句,现代表与真情相反的场馆,或表示未来不太或然实现的希望时,其宾语从句的动词方式为: 

根据句子的用途,印度语印尼语的语句可分:叙述句(鲜明、否定)、疑问句(常常、特殊、选用、反意)、祈使句、惊讶句等多种。

  ⑴表示对现行反革命场馆包车型大巴杜撰:从句动词用过去式或过去举办式表示,be 的死亡式用were.   

依照句子的布局可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    小编愿意知晓这一个主题材料的答案。(缺憾不知道。) 

简短句唯有二个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或根据地(;)把多少个或五个以上的简便句连在一齐构成。复合句:含有二个或四个以上从句的语句。复合句满含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等二种。

  ⑵表示对过去场合包车型客车假造:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 同等对待句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  小编后悔不应当浪费这么多日子。( 实际暮春经浪费掉了。) 

并称句指把多少个相符主要的句子连接在联合,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

  ⑶表示对以往的主观意愿:谓语动词格局为“would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形”。在这里种气象下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法同大器晚成,因为主句的主语所企盼的从句动作能还是不可能完结,决意于从句主语的势态或希望(非动作名词除此而外) 。 

表示选用事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能结束。 

意味着转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,能够代表需要,日常意味着说话人的不适或缺憾。

意味着因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  作者期望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it情势宾语:和it 作方式主语同样,  我们常用it 来作情势宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种景观尤为出以往带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的归类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他注明他不会屈服。 

状语从句经常修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词指导,附属连词在从句中不担当句子成分。依照状语从句所抒发的比不上含义和成效,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、目标、结果、迁就、比较、形式等状语从句。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的辞藻

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。大家越焦灼困难,困难就可以变得越强盛。

时间状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.风华正茂……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第二次,last time最后二次,every/each time每便,the next time后一次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 意气风发……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

缘由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:平时难题句做宾语,引进if或whether

地方状语从句:where,wherever(无论那里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗可是状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 缘故状语从句:since辅导的

准绳状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如若;只要),in case (万大器晚成); on condition that(要是), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

正如状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 指点。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

办法状语从句:as(正如;遵照),as if/as though (好像)辅导。

  4. If设想条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中国和东瀛常选取叙述语序。可是,在底下的两种情形下,状语从句多选用倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接迁就状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词平常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。比方:

  6.状语从句简单(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语大器晚成致,状从轻便接纳分词作者状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的四个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句选用局地倒装语序。举例:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb 表示“前边一个情形适用于后人”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who指点的节制性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第八个分句接收部分倒装语序,即把第1个分句用陈说语序。譬喻:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教大家英文的足够女孩啊?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一同指导妥洽状语从句,句子接纳汇报语序。举个例子:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the +相比级the+相比级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子依旧使用叙述语序。比如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的不一致之处在于,now that 引出的必须是三个新出现的事实或状态,假若依旧照旧,和过去比较并未成形,则不用 now that 教导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然大家把具有素材都计划好了,大家理应立即开始那项新的办事。

永利澳门游戏网站,在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态平常固守以下的原理:

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 教导的从句借使身处句末,且前边有逗号,则能够用并列连词 for 来替代。但假使不是表明直接原因,而是种种情景再说估算,就只可以用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他明天没来,因为他患有了。

①象征“同期”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等三番一回的年月状语从句,主句和从句时态基本少年老成致。比如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 缘故状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“以往”意义的规格、时间和退让状语从句中多用日常今后时,而主句用日常以往时,被称呼“主将从现”。比如:Tomwon’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since教导的流年状语从句多用日常过去时,而含有since从句的主句平时用今日成功时。举例:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 合资化的长处在于能推动相互角逐。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第贰个分句中过去产生时,第四个分句用日常过去时。比方:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 指导的状语从句中,假若表暗暗提示气风发种与事实相反夸张,从句多用常常过去时或过去实现时。比如:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  作品来源:跨考教育[第十五讲 永利澳门游戏网站轻便句、并列句和复合句。微博]

(5)状语从句的简短

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同一时候,被动结构的状语从句,可总结与主句相像的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动协会的状语从句,可回顾与主句相近的主语和助动词,保留连词+现在分词。举个例子:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用于重申组织中

状语从句作为被重申有个别用以重申协会时,豆蔻梢头律用It is/was …that…,不能用when取代that。句子用叙述语序。注意:当强调Not until +时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再选拔倒装语序。举个例子:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

根据在句中的效能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句二种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不辜负命令担负分,不经常可被略去;表示“是或不是”用whether,唯有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if替代。Whether和if在从句中不担当成分。倘诺从句缺乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用延续代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;假如从句紧缺状语,用再三再四副词when, where, how, why。

是因为总是代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,由此从句中谓语不用难题语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句当做句子成分,而一连词whether 和if(是还是不是),在从句中不担当句子成分,只起一而再功用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”, should可粗略。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊慌的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(建议,提出), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚持不渝), urge (督促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(提议),recommend(提出,推荐), request(央求,须求), demand(必要),require(要求,须求)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”, should可总结。

③ 在蕴藏advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可粗略。

④在部分意味着傻眼、恒心等心绪色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should +have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。比方:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的归类

定语从句分为限定性定语从句非约束性定语从句二种。限定性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限量成效,而非限定性定语从句对先行词起补充和释疑表达效果与利益。常常限定性定语从句与先行词之间从未逗号,而非节制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开分离。

(2)定语从句的涉及代词和涉及副词

定语从句日常由关系代词和涉及副词指点。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和涉嫌副词必得放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连连先行词和从句的功用,同期在从句中又出任句子成分。

(3)关系代词和事关副词的用法:

①超越行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②抢先行词为物或任何句申时用which,可作主语或宾语;③初期词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)节制性定语从句与非节制性定语从句的界别

①约束性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,以至不合逻辑。举例:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完全)

② 非约束性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不留心,去掉定从句,意思照旧安然无恙。方式上用逗号隔断,不可能that用教导。比方:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的情趣仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难题

①用that而不用 which之处:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有参天级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。比方:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的事态:指导非约束性定语从句;指代整个主句的情趣;用于介词 的末尾+ 关系代词。举例:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行反革命词为 the same +名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。譬喻:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可代表主句的开始和结果,教导的非限定性定语从句既可放在主句此前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。比方: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 引导非节制性定语从句时与which的分歧

当主句和从句语义风流倜傥致时,用as指导;反之,用which来辅导迷津非限定性定语从句;当非限制定语从句为否定意义时,常用which指导。举个例子:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④事关代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。举例:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 辅导定语从句的涉嫌副词一时能够用“介词 + which”来取代。比如:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只可以用which和whom,且不可能轻易;假如介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可粗略。举例:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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